On Tuesday, the U.S. Treasury imposed sanctions on four of Maduro's closest allies, including his wife, Cilia Flores, who joined him on this trip.
Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro speaks during the U.N. General Assembly meeting in NY on Wednesday, Sept. 26, 2018.
The U.S. government has already sanctioned 70 officials, including Maduro, and restricted U.S. investment and financial transactions, including those involving Venezuela's new digital currency.
Sanctions such as those published on Tuesday bar American citizens and companies from any dealings with the individuals in question, which blocks them from holding bank accounts or contracting services from US firms.
It appeared unlikely, however, that Maduro would cross paths with Trump, despite the US president's comments earlier in the day that he was willing to meet with his Venezuelan counterpart if it would help ease suffering in the South American nation. Maduro is widely unpopular but has clung to power through what the USA says is rigged elections and corruption.
Trudeau steered clear of direct criticism of Trump and said Canada and the USA share concern about the humanitarian crisis in Venezuela. They chose to apply tough sanctions on top officials in Maduro's government.
David Smilde, a Tulane University professor who has spent more than two decades living and working in Venezuela, said Tuesday's actions would seem to suggest the US has given up trying to sow division within the government in the hopes it could force a democratic transition from within. "... If he's here, if he wants to meet, I don't know".
But beyond rallying Maduro's opponents, it's unclear what impact the sanctions will have.
First lady Cilia Flores, a lawyer and former attorney general who also ran the country's legislature, frequently appears at public events with Maduro and is seen an important behind-the-scenes power broker.
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According to The Associated Press, the CLAP program "has become a tenuous lifeline for millions of citizens suffering due to barren supermarket shelves and hyperinflation estimated by the International Monetary Fund to soon reach 1 million percent".
The latest sanctions by the U.S. Treasury Department also seized a $20 million private jet belonging to an alleged front man for powerful socialist party boss Diosdado Cabello.
"More personal sanctions can maybe deprive top Venezuelan officials from some ill-gotten gains but this will hardly destabilise the regime", said Raul Gallegos, associate director of consultancy Control Risks.
Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro gives a speech at a rally against U.S President Donald Trump in Caracas, Venezuela, Aug. 14, 2017.
Cutz spoke publicly Monday at the Wilson Center think tank in Washington for the first time since leaving government.
"Because that's what Canadians expect: That we stand up not just for ourselves but for everyone", Trudeau said. "We need to keep all the options on the table". "This has been economic trade persecution of Venezuela", Maduro said on Wednesday.
Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro walks with his wife Cilia Flores upon their arrival at the airport in Beijing, China, on September 13, 2018.
"They have tried to demonize the Republic of Venezuela", he said. Although he later softened his language, his words suggested a growing frustration among experts and observers over bringing change to Venezuela through sanctions and diplomatic pressure alone.
"Let me be clear: the US will always stand with our allies, " Pence tweeted.