Faced with mounting calls for tough measures by U.S. lawmakers across the political spectrum, the State Department said it had identified 21 Saudis whose visas would either be revoked or who would be ineligible for future visas.
France and Germany's leaders said Saturday they want a "coordinated" European position for sanctions on arms sales to Saudi Arabia.
But as more information emerged from the Turkish authorities about the murder at the Saudi consulate, Trump called it "the worst in the history of cover-ups". The Saudi leadership has pushed responsibility down the chain of command. But his broader mention of the matter toward the end of his speech underscores the serious national security ramifications the incident poses for relations with a key US ally.
"Failure of any one nation to adhere to global norms and the rule of law undermines regional stability at a time when it is needed most", he continued.
Pushing harder on the kingdom to reveal all the facts and officials involved in the attack might prove difficult for the US, as President Donald Trump has counted on Saudi Arabia to commit both troops and money in Syria to relieve pressures on USA forces and war spending there, and have a larger role countering Iran.
Turkey is a friendly country to Saudi Arabia, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir said on Saturday. I think people have assigned blame on Saudi Arabia with such certainty before the investigation is complete.
In a tearful TV interview with Turkish broadcaster Haberturk, she said: "I demand that all those involved in this savagery, from the highest to the lowest levels, are brought to justice".
He says the kingdom has made it "very clear that those responsible will be held responsible".
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Turkish prosecutors seeking the extradition accuse the 18 of "murder by premeditation, monstrous intent or by torture".
Mattis said he continued to support partners in the region who were defending themselves against Houthi attacks in Yemen but also called for an end to fighting there.
Sunni Muslim Saudi Arabia and Shi'ite Muslim Iran, which was not represented in the Manama conference agenda, have always been locked in a proxy war, competing for regional supremacy from Iraq to Syria and Lebanon to Yemen.
Mr Mattis said more measures would follow.
Others in the USA, however, have condemned the Saudis for what has been called indiscriminate bombings that have slaughtered civilians in Yemen.
Khashoggi, a Washington Post columnist and a U.S. resident, was killed after entering the consulate to obtain a document that would allow him to remarry. He said the 18 arrested men "must know" who killed him.
But, he cautioned that respect "must come with transparency and trust". Jamal did not deserve to die, let alone in the one place where he should have felt safest in a foreign land - the Saudi Arabia Consulate.
As worldwide pressure has grown, President Trump has promised "severe punishment" if the Saudi government - a close ally of the USA - was found to be linked to the killing. The White House has put the young prince at the heart of its Middle East policy, key for both combating Iranian influence across the region and brokering an Israeli-Palestinian peace deal.