"I thank Mats, Jerome and Thomas for the many successful, extraordinary and unique years we shared", Loew said in a statement issued by the German FA.
"They are big players who stand for a big time in the national team".
They all graduated to the senior team and took part in the 2010 World Cup where Germany's youngest tournament team in 76 years reached the semi-finals with an exciting run that included wins over England and Argentina.
Low said Muller, 29, along with Jerome Boateng and Mats Hummels, both 30, will not be part of a "new start for the German national team" in 2019.
'A national team coach has to make sporting decisions, I don't question that.
DFB director and national-team coordinator Oliver Bierhoff was also supportive of the move, proclaiming: "We now want to make it clear that this is a new beginning for the squad".
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"We want to continue the upheaval that we initiated at the end of a year ago". For me that is not the right style and is definitely not a sign that you are important.
'I have no understanding for the suggested definitiveness of this decision. Personally, I am convinced that I can continue to play at the highest level and will continue to do so in the future. The youngsters coming through will have the room they need to grow.
"In my view, it wasn't necessary to close the door to the national team for three well-deserving players", said the 50-year-old. "Now it's up to them to take responsibility".
DFB president Reinhard Grindel said now was "the right time" for Low to overhaul his personnel, adding: "I appreciate that Joachim wants to carry on changing the shape of the national side". I have always been extremely proud to wear the jersey of the national team and I will never forget summer 2014 in particular.
After an extremely disappointing World Cup campaign for Germany in 2018, Mesut Ozil was first to announce his retirement from global football.
Muller has scored 10 goals at World Cups, winning the golden boot in 2010. "But I would have obviously wished for a different departure".
'I am sad about this news because it has always been the greatest thing for me to represent my country.